World War II US Cavalry Units: Pacific Theater
Osprey Elite Series Book 175
By Gordon L. Rottman, illustrated by Peter Dennis
Softcover, 64 pages, bibliography, and index
Published by Osprey Publishing October 2009
Dimensions: 7.3 x 0.2 x 9.9 inches
A minor bit of trivia is that most nations still had horse-mounted cavalry units at the beginning of the Second World War, a few nations retaining them until the end. For the U.S. Army, the Louisiana Maneuvers in 1941 demonstrated that the cavalry could not keep pace with mechanized units and even the most die-hard officers realized the era of the horse was near an end. Still, the last combat actions of the U.S. cavalry were in the defense of the Philippines – the last U.S. cavalry charge was on 16JAN42 when a platoon from the 26th Cavalry Regiment (Philippine Scouts) charged a vastly superior Japanese force crossing the river at Morong and held until reinforced. They continued to fight as cavalry until starvation of the troops at Bataan forced them to slaughter their mounts for food in March. Thereafter they fought as infantry, many forming the nuclei of guerrilla groups rather than surrender.
Most U.S. cavalry regiments gave up their horses and transitioned into infantry regiments during the war. The 112th Regiment was noteworthy in deploying to New Caledonia and equipping with Australian horses. It was soon found that the horses were not well suited for the jungle terrain and that they did not find sufficient nourishment in the local vegetation, compelling the 112th to return their mounts and reorganize as infantry in March 1943. A peculiarity of the horseless cavalry units is they maintained their traditions, keeping uniform articles such as specialized boots and their organizational structure. Compared to standard infantry regiments a cavalry regiment was half the strength and lacked many of the heavier supporting weapons. The cavalry was also organized with two rifle troops per squadron, while the infantry had three rifle companies plus a weapons company per battalion. This made the horseless cavalry regiments weaker and less tactically flexible than standard infantry regiments.
Given the unusual subject, I found this book fascinating. It is a standard-format Osprey Elite volume, brief but well-illustrated. It is of the “facts and figures” style, listing the component elements of the units described and their actions, but this gives the reader a firm understanding of organization and composition of these unusual formations. Recommended for those nostalgic for the cavalry or curious about their transition from the horse.