Star Wars Rebel Fighters Filming Models

Happy Star Wars Day, May the Fourth be with you!

The rebel fighters seen in the original Star Wars Episode IV – A New Hope are some of the most recognized models ever constructed.  These are detail photographs of the actual models used in filming of the original Star Wars trilogy.  The models were part of a display of props and costumes which toured various museums throughout the United States, I took these pictures while the collection was at the Indiana State Museum in July of 2013.

The Star Wars models are known for their weathered and worn appearance.  This was in stark contrast to the squeaky-clean appearance of most science fiction ships up to that time, and lent an air of authenticity to the production.  The weathering and chipping techniques on display are worthy of note for all modelers regardless of subject matter.  The models were constructed making extensive use of components taken from plastic kits of the time, if you look closely at the details you may be able to identify some of the parts!

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Bonus!

Canadian Escort Ships Colour Photographs

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A beautiful photograph of HMCS Arrowhead (K145) underway.  Arrowhead was a Flower class corvette, which were designed to provide a number of cheap, easy to construct convoy escorts and were based upon a commercial whaling ship hull.  Displacement was 925 tons with a crew of 85, maximum speed was a modest 16 knots.  Armament was light but sufficient, with a four-inch gun forward and a variety of lighter guns for anti-aircraft protection.  They carried depth charges and were later fitted with a Hedgehog projector for anti-submarine work.  Many were also fitted with minesweeping gear.  Ships of the class were named for types of flowers in Royal Navy service, Arrowhead being a flowering water plant.  HMCS Arrowhead was commissioned in November 1940 and survived the war.

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Another Flower class corvette, here is HMCS Midland (K220) airing her signal flags while moored to a pier.  She was a Canadian-build ship, being constructed (and named for) Midland, Ontario.  She spent her wartime service escorting shipping along the North American seaboard.  She was active in a countering a series of incursions by German U-boats into Canadian coastal waters collectively known as the Battle of St. Lawrence.

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HMCS Regina (K234) was named after Regina, Saskatchewan.  She was commissioned in January 1942 and had an active service career.  She was assigned as part of the screening force for Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa in November 1942.  Subsequently she screened convoys between England and Gibraltar.  On 08FEB43 she depth charged and sank the Italian Acciaio-class submarine Avorio off Algeria.  She later was part of the invasion fleet for the landings at Normandy.  On 08AUG44 Regina was rescuing survivors of the American Liberty ship Ezra Weston when she was torpedoed by the U-667, sinking with the loss of thirty of her crew.

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HMCS Restigouche (H00) was originally commissioned into the Royal Navy as the C-class destroyer Comet in June of 1932.  Original armament was four 4.7-inch guns in single mounts, eight 21-inch torpedo tubes in two quadruple mounts, and depth charges.  Later refits would reduce the numbers of main guns and torpedo tubes in favor of increased anti-submarine and anti-aircraft capability.  Maximum speed was a respectable 36 knots, complement was 165.

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Restigouche was very active during the Battle of the Atlantic, screening several local and trans-Atlantic convoys.  She was part of the screening force during the Normandy invasion, and participated in the sinking of three German patrol boats on 06JUL44 off Brest.  She survived the war and was scrapped in 1946.

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River-class frigates were designed to be larger, more capable, and more sea-worthy convoy escorts than the Flower class corvettes, while still being less expensive to build and operate than destroyers.  They were armed with a twin 4-inch mount forward (although the first units completed were initially fitted with a single mount as seen here) and a 3-inch gun aft along with Oerlikon 20mm cannon, Hedgehog and depth charges.  They were four knots faster than the Flowers and had twice the range.  Pictured here is HMCS Waskesiu (K330), which was built at Esquimalt, British Columbia and commissioned on 16JUN43.  On 24FEB44 Waskesiu and HMS Nene engaged the German submarine U-257.  After multiple depth charge attacks the U-257 was forced to the surface where she was sunk by gunfire from Waskesiu.  She survived the war and was sold to India.

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HMCS Weyburn (K173) was another Flower-class corvette, built at Port Arthur, Ontario on Lake Superior.  She was commissioned in November 1941, escorting shipping in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  She escorted convoys in support of the Torch landings in North Africa.  On 22FEB43 she struck a mine laid by the German submarine U-118 and began to sink.  The British destroyer HMS Wivern came alongside to remove the crew, but the Wivern was severely damaged when Weyburn’s depth charges exploded as she sank, killing many of the crew of both ships.

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Two interesting photographs taken from the crow’s nest of HMCS Thetford Mines (K459), a River-class frigate.  These views show details of the fo’c’sle, twin 4-inch gun mount, and open bridge which should be of use to modelers.  Thetford Mines participated in the sinking of U-1302 in St. George’s Channel on 07MAR45.  She survived the war.

Star Wars Millennium Falcon Filming Model

Happy Star Wars Day, May the Fourth be with you!

Han Solo’s Millennium Falcon needs no introduction.  These are detail photographs of the Falcon model used in filming the original Star Wars trilogy.  The model was part of a display of props and costumes which toured various museums throughout the United States, I took these pictures while the collection was at the Indiana State Museum in July of 2013.

The Star Wars models are known for their weathered and worn appearance.  This was in stark contrast to the squeaky-clean appearance of most science fiction ships up to that time, and lent an air of authenticity to the production.  The weathering and chipping techniques on display are worthy of note for all modelers regardless of subject matter.  The model was constructed making extensive use of components taken from plastic kits of the time, if you look closely at the details some of these parts may seem familiar!

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British Aircraft Carriers Book Review

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British Aircraft Carriers: Design, Development and Service Histories

By David Hobbs

Hardcover in dustjacket, 400 pages, heavily illustrated, gatefold plans

Published by Naval Institute Press January 2014

Language: English

ISBN-10: 9781591140740

ISBN-13: 978-1591140740

ASIN: 1591140749

Dimensions: 9.8 x 1.0 x 11.2 inches

This is a massive large-format book that covers a lot of ground – the history of aviation ships in the Royal Navy.  It details every RN aviation effort from the earliest trials with floatplanes and take-off platforms mounted to warships through to the recently commissioned Queen Elizabeth class of today.

Each class of ship is treated to its own chapter.  The ship’s design and specifications are described along with any modifications which may have occurred during her career.  Then the ship’s operational history is detailed.  An interesting and very useful touch is the inclusion of the composition of the ship’s airwing at various times which lists the squadrons assigned and aircraft types.

The book also devotes chapters to comparing the carriers of the Royal Navy with their foreign contemporaries, not surprisingly these are mostly American or Japanese types, with a few nods to the French.  The designs and equipment of each are compared showing the influences the various navies had upon one another and these are fascinating.

While the majority of the carriers covered are familiar to students of military history, the more obscure types are not forgotten.  The MAC ships are prime examples. These were cargo ships or tankers which were modified by adding flight decks while still retaining their ability to transport cargo.  They were able to support 3 – 6 Swordfish for anti-submarine protection of convoys.  An even more unusual concept was Project Habbakuk which was intended to be a massive unsinkable aircraft carrier made of ice.  While this was attractive on paper, the impracticability of actually constructing this vessel prevented her from ever seeing service.

The book is very well illustrated throughout with several photographs which were new to me.  The center section features general arrangement builders’ drawings of various carriers.  Here the internal details are shown in profile, the star of which is a double-gatefold profile of HMS Ark Royal.

Altogether a fascinating history of Royal Navy aircraft carriers which I can recommend without hesitation and an outstanding reference to add to your collection.  I purchased my copy online at a substantial discount from Edward R. Hamilton Booksellers.

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Mine Squadron Seven Losses Off Utah Beach, Normandy Invasion

Mine Squadron Seven (MINERON 7) was comprised of eleven AM type minesweepers of the Auk and similar Raven classes.  In support of the Normandy Invasion, MINERON 7 was assigned the rather hazardous mission of sweeping the approach and landing areas off Utah beach.  Two of the eleven minesweepers would be lost.

The USS Osprey (AM 56) struck a mine at 1700 on 05JUN44.  The mine detonated alongside the forward engine room, at 1815 she was abandoned and sank shortly thereafter.  Osprey was the first Allied vessel sunk in the D-Day invasion.  Six sailors were killed, becoming the first casualties of D-Day.

Two days later the USS Tide (AM 125) activated a mine, likely a large influence mine air-dropped the night before.  The force was massive, witnesses stating that the ship was lifted clear of the water by the explosion.  The majority of her crew, including her Captain, were killed or injured by the blast.

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USS Osprey (AM 56), a Raven class minesweeper, seen before the Normandy invasion.  (National Archives)

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USS Osprey (AM 56) after having struck a mine at 1700 on 05JUN44, with a British MGB alongside making smoke to conceal the damaged ship.  The British vessel appears to be a Fairmile “B” gunboat.  The mine struck the forward engine room, at 1815 she was abandoned and sank shortly thereafter. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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USS Tide (AM 125) seen underway.  Note that she carries a second 3″/50 gun aft of her stack instead of the 40 mm guns more commonly seen on Auk class minesweepers.  (National Archives)

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Tide seen foundering after having struck a mine amidships.  The force of the explosion lifted the ship clear of the water and killed or injured most of her crew.  (National Archives)

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PT 509 and USS Pheasant (AM 61) coming to the aid of Tide, who is burning.  Her Executive Officer ordered her magazines flooded to prevent the fire from causing an explosion.  Photograph taken from the USS Threat (AM 124), who rescued many of the survivors.  (National Archives)

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A closer view of the damage to Tide.  Her keel is broken, her engineering spaces and all other spaces forward have been opened to the sea.  (National Archives)

 

Narrative by: Lieutenant Commander George Crane, USNR
USS Tide (AM-125)
Normandy Invasion
Lieutenant Commander George Crane, Executive Officer of the USS Tide when the AM class minesweeper was lost off Normandy, tells of his Neptune Operation experiences. As senior surviving officer he reported to the Bureau of Naval Personnel and while in the Bureau gave us the recording. Commander Crane suffered a broken neck and some broken ribs in the sinking. Before joining the Naval reserve, Commander Crane, who is 41, was a member of the Nebraska State Tax Commission

This is Lieutenant Porter. We are in the Office of Naval Records And Library on 31 August 1944. Lieutenant Commander George R. Crane of the U.S.S. Tide has consented to talk informally this afternoon.

Commander, would you kindly tell us about your first encounter with mining by air a few days before D-day?

Comdr. Crane:

Two or three days prior to D-day while we were operating from the port of Torquay, on the southern coast of England, all 11 of the AM class of minesweepers were at Torquay inside of the breakwater there. This is a very small, a shallow harbor. In the evening the mine squadron was ordered out for night practice and approximately 30 minutes after we had left the harbor the German bombers came over and bombed the harbor of Torquay very heavily. A number of bombs fell inside the breakwater and still more outside the breakwater in the harbor and its approaches.

It was very fortunate that we had left the harbor when we did because it would have been very easy to have bottled up all 11 of the AM sweeps in the breakwater area and had that taken place, some other plans would have to [have] been made for the assault sweep in the actual invasion itself. Following this raid the AMs, including the U.S.S. Tide, spent the remaining days until the actual invasion sweeping the harbors on the southern coast of England, including the harbor of Torquay,m clearing them in order to allow the ships to go out to make the sorties and the crossing of the channel for the actual invasion landings on the coast of Normandy. A number of mines were destroyed by the minesweepers and the harbors were cleared, of course, in time for all of the ships to go out and make the invasion sortie without incident.

Lt. Porter:

All right, Sir. A good many people have talked to us from various ships and commands involved in the Normandy operation and without exception from the highest echelons down they have spoken of the excellent work of the minesweepers. Could you give us an informal picture of that work as you personally experienced it, perhaps starting with the hour when you left for the Neptune operation finally?

Comdr. Crane:

Early on the morning of June 5 we left Torquay to make the channel crossing and make the clearance sweep preparatory for the invasion of France. In our particular group of ships were all of the 11 AM class minesweepers of a squadron. The early part of the trip was entirely without incident and apparently the Germans did not know that we were making the crossing or made no attempt to stop us. We proceeded until towards dusk when the first casualty to our squadron occurred and the Osprey [(AM-56)] was sunk.

We reformed our column and went on across the channel leading the huge convoy which stretched out as far as we could see behind us and as dusk deepened we streamed our gear for an “O” type sweep clearing a channel in toward the beach. We were operating off UTAH beach and this first sweep was uneventful, no mines were encountered. When we reached the area inshore which was to be used for the transport and fire support area we streamed “O” type gear from each side of our ships and went in for the clearance sweep of the transport and fire support area. The Tide was in the first line of advance in this phase of the sweeping operation.

Because of the fact that we found that the area had not been heavily mined as it was first thought it might have been, it was possible to decrease the actual sweeping operations at this time. Starting at six hours before H-hour we went in close to the beach and carried out the final phase of our assault sweeping preparation for the actual landings. We completed this assault sweep shortly before the loading of the landing crafts were started and when we had completed this phase we left the immediate area and formed a line of defense against E-boat and U-boat operations, protecting and screening the transports and other ships taking part in the invasion.

By this time, of course, aerial bombardment was very heavy and the firing from our own ships was tremendous. We operated in an area close to the Nevada [BB-36]. One of the things that stood out most in our minds at that time was the heavy firing of the Nevada. Every time her guns fired a salvo all of our ships felt as through they were going to be shaken to pieces and we knew from that, of course, that they were laying down a terrific barrage on the beach.

NAZIS DROPPED GROUND MINES

When the first landings started on the beach it was obvious that the Germans had concentrated their mining operations at that time, in a defense inshore, small obstacle mines to destroy landing craft and personnel as they came in. These were, of course, too far inshore for ships of our draft to reach and they could not have been destroyed by any sweeping, by minesweepers. As the day wore, on, enemy planes came over and during the afternoon of D-day and the night of D-day the waters in the areas of UTAH beach and adjacent to UTAH beach were heavily mined form the air. The Germans dropped ground mines and nothing could be done about that during the night of D-day.

During the night of D-day the minesweepers of the AM class, including the Tide were moved in close inshore guarding the Carentan estuary, where we were stationed to prevent the egress of enemy E-boats based up the river. There was some flurry of activity during the night in which it was believed that E-boats had made an attempt to come down the river and had been driven back. There was some firing but there were no casualties to the ships during the night time.

Early on the morning, which was June 7, we received an order to go close inshore in company with the Threat, which is the AM 124, and the Swift [AM-122], another of the AMs of our squadron, to make a clearance sweep of the area mined during the night. At that time it was believed that this area had been mined not only magnetically, but with moored mines, perhaps dropped by smaller craft during the night and so quite early on the morning of June 7th, we went in close inshore and made this clearance sweep for “O” type mines. No “O” type mines were encountered during the sweep and at 9:37 we recovered our gear preparatory to leaving the area and perhaps conducting other type sweeping operations.

The Tide had just taken her gear aboard and had come to six knots speed when a tremendous explosion below decks lifted the entire ship completely out of the water. Officers and men watching from other ships stated that the ship was lifted a full five feet into the air. The force of the explosion broke the Tide’s back, tore a tremendous hole in her bottom, tore away all bulkheads below the waterline, and when I went below to ascertain the damage done by the explosion, I found that mattresses from the forward crew’s compartment were being swept into the after engine room on the flood of water which was sweeping in very rapidly. That meant that those mattresses had been carried through the forward crew’s compartment, the after forward crew’s compartment, the forward engine room, the refrigeration spaces, and into the after engine room. As soon as the damage had been ascertained below decks, which it was a matter of seconds only, I went to the bridge and found that there were practically no men of the crew able to be on their feet. All had been killed or wounded, and the greatest percentage of them very seriously wounded.

The Tide was obviously sinking rapidly, and since all of our radio had been knocked out by the force of the explosion, it was necessary to call for assistance by the use of megaphones. Fortunately for the survivors, the Pheasant [AM-61], another AM of our squadron, and the Swift were nearby and came in to help evacuate the casualties, as did the PT boat commanded by Commander Bulkeley. In addition, a Higgins landing boat from the USS Bayfield [APA-33] came alongside and evacuation of the wounded started immediately.

ORDERED MAGAZINES FLOODED

I had ascertained among the first things that the Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Allen B. Heyward, of Charleston, S.C., U.S.N.R., was dead, He had died after I reached his side, with the request that I take over immediately.

At about this time, a serious fire broke out aft on the ship, and I ordered the magazines flooded in order to prevent explosion. Shortly thereafter, we were able to bring the fire under control, the magazines were flooded and the ship, which at first listed badly to starboard, now began to settle on an even keel. I, at this time, gave the order to prepare to abandon ship, taking all the wounded, and many of the badly wounded men themselves assisted in evacuating others to the ships alongside. In a few minutes, however, a more severe fire than the first broke out and it appeared that an explosion was imminent. The ships alongside, having taken as many survivors as they could take, then pulled away and the U.S.S. Threat, commanded by Lieutenant Commander Ferrell, U.S.N.R., came alongside to evacuate the remaining men. Commander Ferrell placed his ship to starboard of the Tide so that when the Tide started to capsize, as she did again, she toppled against the Threat; was held and then levelled off again, and we were able to get rid of some of the fuel in one of the tanks so that we reestablished a fairly level condition of the ship. The remaining 17 men on the ship were then evacuated to the U.S.S. Threat and I was taken from the ship to the Threat.

Immediately upon the evacuation of the last of the members of the crew and myself, a line was placed on the bow of the Tide and the U.S.S. Swift attempted to tow the Tide to the beach. However, as soon as a strain was put upon the line, the Tide broke in two and sank in approximately 40 feet of water. This was approximately three to four minutes after the last of the survivors had been taken off the ship.

Of the 97 men taken from the Tide, who were wounded, all were taken either directly to hospital ships or to other ships that took them to hospital ships in a very brief time. The men were scattered among some five or six ships. I, with the last 17 of the men from the ship, had been taken to the U.S.S. Threat, and we were later transferred to an LST which was a semi-hospital ship. We remained in the area for some 48 hours, during which we made a landing in Normandy; we were bombed by airplanes; we struck one small mine; and we were under fire from the beach. We were then returned to England, and by then the other survivors were already back in England, where they were scattered among the various Army and Navy hospitals throughout the country, some being taken as far north as Wales at this time. I myself was taken up in central England, not far from London, but to the north and west, and it was not until several weeks later that the men were in the main part reassembled in Naval hospitals and prepared for their return to the United States.

The first draft of injured men who came back to the United States, left England some five weeks after the sinking. There were 30 in this group, and then other smaller groups left until the last of the evacuations, which were in August. I believe all men, with the possible exception of two badly injured, are now back in the United States. During the time that we were in the hospitals in England, we were given very adequate care and, of course, upon their return to the United States, the men were hospitalized until able to go on convalescent leave. Most of them now are on leave and will shortly return to duty.

 

USS Broadbill (AM-58) – A Veteran’s Photographs

Radioman Second Class Francis Cinque was assigned to the Auk-class minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM 58) during World War Two.  He participated in Operation Neptune, the naval component of the Allied landings at Normandy, the bombardment of the Port of Cherbourg, and Operation Dragoon, the invasion of Southern France.  I recently had the privilege of helping his grandson’s family identify some of the pictures from his album, and they agreed to allow me to share a few of them here.

This set was taken by RM2 Cinque from the USS Broadbill (AM-58).  They show useful details of the ship and interesting events surrounding her operations.

I have identified Mr. Cinque’s photographs to the best of my abilities, and added supplementary photographs where they are useful.  If anyone has any additional information or can correct any errors I may have made please add your information in the comments below and I’ll pass them along.

 

USS Broadbill (AM-58) History

Laid down 23 July 1941 by the Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, MI

Launched 21 May 1942

Commissioned USS Broadbill (AM 58), 13 October 1942

Decommissioned December 1945 at San Diego, CA

Recommissioned 19 March 1952

Decommissioned 25 January 1954 at Orange, TX

Reclassified as a Fleet Minesweeper (Steel Hull), MSF-58, 7 February 1955

Struck from the Navy Register 1 July 1972

Sold 1 December 1973

Acquired in 1974 by David A. Hahn of Orange for use as a yacht and renamed Anaconda

 

Specifications:

Displacement 890 tons standard, 1,250 full load

Length 221′ 2″, Beam 32′ 2″, Draft 10′ 9″ (Length 67.4 m, Beam 9.8 m, Draft 3.3 m)

Propulsion: Two 1,559 shp ALCO 539 diesel electric engines, Westinghouse single reduction gear, two shafts.  Speed 18.1 knots (33 km/h)

Complement: 105

Armament: One 3″/50 dual purpose gun mount, two single 40 mm gun mounts, eight 20 mm guns, two depth charge tracks, four depth charge projectors, one Hedgehog projector, capacity for up to eighty mines.

 

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A useful view of a sister ship, the USS Tide (AM 125).  This photograph gives a good impression of the layout and overall configuration of these ships.  While small, they were relatively well armed and quite capable of performing anti-submarine duties as well as acting as general escorts, in addition to their primary roles as minesweepers / minelayers.  (National Archives)

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A view of the fantail of the Auk class minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM-58) as she sweeps for magnetic mines.  The davits are for handling the sweeping gear for moored mines.  The canvas covered objects are single 20 mm Oerlikon mounts, the Auk class carried eight of these in all.  Depth charge racks are mounted outboard of each davit. (Francis Cinque photograph)

003
Another  similar view of Broadbill’s fantail.  The large rectangular objects and floats are part of her “Otter” or “O Gear”.  These would be streamed from the stern to cut the cables of moored mines.  After the cables were cut the mines would rise to the surface where they could be destroyed by gunfire.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

004
C-47 Skytrain transports tow Waco gliders over an Auk class minesweeper off Southern France.  They likely carry the 550th Glider Infantry Battalion on their way to assault the town of Le Muy on 15AUG44 as part of Operation Dragoon. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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C-47 Skytrains towing Waco gliders, showing details and the towing configuration.

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A well-worn Liberty ship off-loading cargo to the LCTs and barges moored alongside, several trucks are visible on the barges.  Liberty ships displaced 14,250 tons and were the most produced ship design in history, with 2,710 being completed. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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The Auk class minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM-58) laying a smokescreen. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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Gun crew man the 3″/50 gun on the fo’c’sle of the Auk class minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM-58).  The 3″/50 caliber gun was carried by a wide variety of U.S. and Allied vessels.  It could fire a 24 pound projectile to a maximum range of 14,600 yards. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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Two Auk class minesweepers moored in a French port, the bow of a third is visible in the lower left of the photograph. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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The French light cruiser Gloire moored to a buoy with an unidentified French destroyer moored alongside.  Photograph likely taken off the Southern coast of France during Operation Dragoon, 15AUG44 – 14SEP44. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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A nice color photograph of Gloire showing her disruptive camouflage to good advantage.

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A 200 pound Mark IX depth charge is launched over the side of the minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM 58).  A 40 mm Bofers gun is in the foreground. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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Hedgehog anti-submarine projectiles in flight after being fired from the minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM 58).  Hedgehog was a spigot mortar which launched a circular pattern of twenty-four 65 pound projectiles ahead of the attacking ship.  A contact fuse detonated the projectile upon contact with an enemy submarine. (Francis Cinque photograph)

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Hedgehog projectiles enter the water ahead of the minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM 58). (Francis Cinque photograph)

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Depth charges exploding astern of the minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM 58). (Francis Cinque photograph)

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USS Broadbill (AM 58) at anchor with USS YMS-43 moored alongside.

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A nest of Auk class minesweepers in port at Nice, France.  From left to right they are USS Chickadee (AM 59), USS Pheasant (AM 61), USS Broadbill (AM 58), and USS Nuthatch (AM 60).

The Liberation of Marseille, France, September 1944 – A Veteran’s Photographs

Radioman Second Class Francis Cinque was assigned to the Auk-class minesweeper USS Broadbill (AM 58) during World War Two.  He participated in Operation Neptune, the naval component of the Allied landings at Normandy, the bombardment of the Port of Cherbourg, and Operation Dragoon, the invasion of Southern France.  I recently had the privilege of helping his grandson’s family identify some of the pictures from his album, and they agreed to allow me to share a few of them here.

This set was taken by RM2 Cinque as he walked through the port of Marseille, France.  Marseille was liberated from the Germans by French forces under the command of General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny on 28AUG44.  The retreating Germans had destroyed much of the port in an effort to deny its use to the Allied armies fighting in Southern France.

I have identified Mr. Cinque’s photographs to the best of my abilities, and added contemporary photographs where they are useful.  If anyone has any additional information or can correct any errors I may have made please add your information in the comments below and I’ll pass them along to the family.

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The Phare de Sainte Marie Light, Marseille, France seen behind one of at least two ships sunk in the harbor channels.  The retreating Germans have scuttled the ship to block access to the port facilities to the North.  LCT 136, a USN Landing Craft, Tank is moored to the quay in the background.  I was unable to identify the blockship in the picture.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

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A contemporary photograph of the Phare de Sainte Marie.

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A vintage postcard of the light.

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Damage to the Rowing Club de Marseille after the city was liberated from the Germans on 28AUG44.  The building shows damage from small arms fire and heavier shells.  I was unable to determine if this building survived or had to be demolished, but there is still a rowing club in Marseille.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

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A U.S. Navy 78′ Higgins Patrol Torpedo boat in front of ruined coastal buildings, location unknown.   (Francis Cinque photograph)

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The remains of a shipping quay in the southern French port of Marseille, September 1944.  The port was destroyed by the German Army to prevent its use by the Allies.  In the background is the Cathedral Major.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

014Bs_Cathedral Major Marseille France
A contemporary view from a similar vantage point using Google maps.  The area is undergoing renovation work.

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A better view of the Cathedral Major.

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The small freighter CAP CORSE scuttled by the Germans in the channel between Fort Saint Nicholas and Fort Saint Jean, to block access to the Vieux Port, Marseille France, September 1944.  CAP CORSE displaced 2,444 tons and entered service in 1929.  She was unable to be refloated and had to be scrapped where she sank.  It took two weeks to remove the blockships before the Allies could enter the port.  Fort Saint Jean is in the background.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

Sofitel Marseille Vieux Port
A contemporary view from a table at the Accor Hotel overlooking the old port to the far right and Fort Saint Jean to the left.  The Cap Corse was scuttled in the channel approximately where the small boat is entering the old harbor in the picture.  RM2 Cinque stood at the edge of the channel to the right with his back to Fort Saint Nicholas to take the previous photograph.

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The BOKA novelty specialty store after the liberation of Marseille, France, September 1944.  Note the U.S. Army Jeep in the background.  The automobile in the right foreground bears the white Cross of Lorraine of the Forces françaises de l’Intérieur, the French Resistance.  The streetlight is of a type still seen today in Marseille.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

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Radioman Second Class Francis Cinque poses on the steps of the Basilique Notre Dame de la Garde in Marseille, France, September 1944.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

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A contemporary view of the Basilique Notre Dame de la Garde.

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A view of Marseille, France from the Basilique Notre Dame de la Garde, September 1944. The old port is visible to the left.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

019
A working party clearing away rubble after the liberation of Marseille, France.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

020
A return to normalcy.  French civilians wait in line to see Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs outside l’Ecran (the Screen) theater, Marseille, France, September 1944.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

020B
A contemporary view of the l’Ecran theater building using Google Maps.  While the facade has been changed, note the details of the second floor windows, railing, and lighting fixture to the right.  The theater entrance was where “La Muthuelle Du Midi” is today.

009
A two-masted schooner anchored peacefully, location unknown.  (Francis Cinque photograph)

HMS Belfast: Cruiser 1939 Book Review

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HMS Belfast: Cruiser 1939

Seaforth Historic Ships Series

By Richard Johnstone-Bryden

Paperback, 128 pages, indexed

Published by Seaforth Publishing, 2013

Language: English

ISBN-10: 1848321554

ISBN-13: 978-1848321557

Dimensions: 6.8 x 9.7 inches

HMS Belfast was a Town-class light cruiser, armed with twelve 6 inch guns and designed with the Washington Naval Treaty’s 10,000 ton limit.  She had an active career, intercepting German blockade runners until she was mined on 21NOV39.  After repairs she escorted Arctic convoys to Russia and fought in the Battle of North Cape against the Scharnhorst.  She supported the Normandy landings, and was sent to the Pacific at the end of WWII.  She provided naval gunfire support for UN troops during the Korean War, and was finally decommissioned in 1963.  She is currently preserved as a museum and is moored in the Thames in London.

Much of the interior of the ship has been restored and is open to the public.  The ship is also used to host various banquets, receptions, and meetings which increase her utility and help fund her upkeep.  I was surprised at how much of the ship can be seen and at the quality of the displays.  The book contains several hundred sharp color photographs, well reproduced on glossy paper, a quality effort.  Captions are informative and well written.  The overall impression is similar to the Aero Detail series of books.

A detailed photographic essay is always valuable to modelers and historians, especially to those of us on the wrong side of the pond who may never have the opportunity to see her in person.  This is a particularly well done walk through, recommended to anyone interested in ships or museums.  The only room for improvement would be to produce the book in a larger format to better enjoy the photography.

I stumbled across this volume at Half Price Books for a pittance and immediately put it into the basket.  The series was new to me, they detail museum ships in England.  Other books in the series are HMS Victory, SS Great Britain, HMS Warrior, HMS Cavalier, and HMS Trincomalee.  Recommended, pick this one up!

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Imperial Japanese Navy Antisubmarine Escorts 1941-45 New Vanguard 248 Book Review

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Imperial Japanese Navy Antisubmarine Escorts 1941-45 New Vanguard 248

Written by Mark Stille, illustrated by Paul Wright

Paperback, 48 pages

Published by Osprey Publishing July 2017

Language: English

ISBN-10: 1472818164

ISBN-13: 978-1472818164

Dimensions: 7.7 x 0.3 x 9.7 inches

The doctrine of the Imperial Japanese Navy centered around fighting one climactic battle where the IJN was to win a decisive victory and thus the war.  All procurement and planning before the Pacific War had this strategy as its goal.  The Japanese submarine fleet was to be given a scouting and support role in this  battle, helping to locate the main enemy fleet and reduce their numbers before the Combined Fleet could join the battle.  The Japanese presumed their opponents would assign their submarines the same mission, and thus gave little thought to protecting their vital merchant fleet in a protracted war.

U.S. Naval doctrine also initially planned to assign the same mission to their Fleet Submarines, but when the Pacific War began the strategy shifted and the U.S. submarine force was tasked with destroying the Japanese merchant fleet.  Heavily reliant on imported resources, the island nation of Japan was particularly vulnerable to a sea blockade.  The Imperial Japanese Navy was remarkably unprepared to meet this threat.  The few dedicated escort ships available were lacking in anti-submarine warfare weapons and sensors, and were typically manned by officers drawn from the Japanese Merchant Marine Academy, not the IJN Academy at Eta Jima.  By 1943 the USN had overcome its initial problems with malfunctioning torpedoes and was deploying large numbers of newly constructed, state of the art submarines with highly trained crews and commanding officers hand-picked for aggressiveness.  The Japanese nation faced an existential crisis.

In this book author Mark Stille describes the belated Japanese efforts to design and produce escort vessels to counter the U.S. submarine threat and protect their merchant fleet.  The Japanese developed several related ship classes with progressive increases in ASW weaponry and efforts were made to simplify the designs in order to reduce construction times.  When US carrier and land based air power became a serious threat during the last year of the war, the ships were refitted with increased anti aircraft batteries.  The book describes the construction of each class and lists the fate of each vessel.  Illustrations are clear and well presented to show the differences between the classes.

Recommended as an overview of the topic, and a good recognition guide to help the reader identify the ship types.

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Subchaser in the South Pacific Book Review

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Subchaser in the South Pacific: A Saga of the USS SC-761 During World War II

By J. Henry Doscher, Jr.

Paperback, illustrated, 110 pages, indexed

Published by Ibooks, Inc. April 2006

Language: English

ISBN-10: 1596873329

ISBN-13: 978-1596873322

Dimensions: 5.5 x 0.4 x 8.4 inches

During the Second World War the U.S. Navy operated a large assortment of small combatants.  One of the most numerous were the SC-497 class submarine chasers.  A total of 438 were built.  These were of wooden construction, 110 feet long, and displaced about 100 tons.  Propulsion was provided by two Diesel engines.  Armament varied, but mainly consisted of light guns and anti-submarine weapons as the name implies.  Crew was twenty seven.

Written by one of her Officers this is the story of one such vessel, the USS SC-761 (most smaller vessels were not named, but commissioned only with their type designations and hull numbers).  Much of her war was spent on escort and patrol duties in the Solomons.  These boats were also used for liaison duties, SC-497 picked up Australian coastwatchers from submarines on two occasions.  Her journeys took her from construction at Ipswich Massachusetts across the Pacific as far south as New Zealand and back.

Having served on a large ship, I find life on the smaller ships interesting.  Even though they are small, they are still U.S. Navy warships and are expected to maintain the same core proficiencies as their larger compatriots.  When one factors in that the crew was almost exclusively comprised of Reservists who were only very recently untrained civilians, the fact that they sailed halfway around the world and went to war in small wooden ships is all the more impressive.

A short book, but a fun read.

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