Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress Interior Colors Part III

Here are some nice color shots of the interior of a Boeing B-17E Flying Fortress showing aircrew at their positions.  These are of the thirteenth B-17E produced, serial 41-2405 with the Sperry remote turret in the ventral position.  The pictures were taken by famed aviation photographer Rudy Arnold on 25JUN42.

A couple of notes.  While the descriptions associated with the negatives in the NASM archive all describe the aircraft as being 41-2405, there are a few photographs in the series which are obviously of other Fortresses, so take that identification with a grain of salt on the interior pictures.  Several of the negatives in the collection have water damage so if you notice unexpected color shift or mottling it is possibly a defect on the negative.

All photographs credit National Air and Space Museum Archives, Rudy Arnold Photo Collection unless otherwise noted.

Ordinance crew are bombing up 41-2405.  The Norton bombsight in the nose was almost always seen covered when on the ground for security reasons, even though by this time several examples had been captured intact by the Japanese on Java.  Note the grounding wire attached to the pitot tube on the port side of the nose, a necessary precaution against sparks when arming or fueling the aircraft.
An exterior view of 41-2405 warming up her engines in the pre-dawn twilight.  Even though the colors are washed out, the Sperry remote belly gun turret and sighting dome show clearly.
Pilot LT Arthur H. Little poses at the controls, showing details of the colors of the flight controls and cockpit.  The cockpit interior was lined with sound-deadening insulation and covered with a dark green canvas.  A B-24 Liberator can be seen in the background.
Co-Pilot LT Douglas H. Busky at his station.  The cockpit side windows could be slid to the rear to allow for ventilation or an unobstructed view.  Notice that the sliding portion is a single piece of molded Plexiglas and is unframed.
The Navigator, 2LT Robert W. Wert at his station in the nose.  The nose compartment of the early Fortresses was also covered in the sound deadening insulation with dark green canvas covering, but later production Forts dispensed with the insulation in the nose except for the bulkhead separating the nose compartment from the cockpit.  The underlying interior was unprimed.  If you can see the structural ribbing on a Fortress interior, it should be in natural aluminum!
Aft of the bomb bay is the radio compartment, where SGT Leslie T. Figgs is pictured at his station.  This compartment was also provided with the interior insulation on the B-17E.  Note the color of his table, and that none of the airframe or fittings are primed.
The after fuselage looking forward, where the waist and belly gunners relax with a bottle of milk and a sandwich.  The belly gunner laid between the feet of the waist gunners facing aft to look though his sight.  The crowded conditions interfered with the efficiency of all three men, and using the periscopic sight was disorienting and nauseating for the ventral gunner.  The Sperry remote turret was not a success and no kills were credited to gunners using the system.  In this view the sight is covered with plywood and parachutes for security reasons.
The same view, but here the photographer has switched to another camera loaded with black and white film which shows additional details.  Note the structural support for the belly turret at the top of the frame, and the canvas covering for the vertical support.
Here is a Boeing factory photograph showing the Sperry remote turret and associated sight more clearly.  It is easy to imagine the waist gunners stepping on and tripping over the belly gunner in combat.  The remote turrets were removed from most aircraft in the Pacific sometime during the Summer and Fall of 1942 and replaced with the manned Sperry ball turrets.  (Boeing photograph)
A posed photograph showing the waist gunners with their .50 caliber machine guns aimed aft.  The lack of space for the gunners to work is obvious, some crews flew with only one waist gunner, especially later in the war.  The interior of the aft fuselage was not provided with the insulative covering, and was left in unprimed Aluminum (as was the bomb bay).  Restored warbirds are generally seen with primed interiors as a preservative measure which has led to an erroneous perception among modelers.
A photograph from the Michael Ochs Archives showing an early Fortress with the hand-held .30 caliber machine gun mounted in the nose.  The relatively weak defensive armament in the nose was quickly discovered by both the Germans and the Japanese.  Efforts by Fortress crews to increase the forward firepower were frustrated by heavier guns cracking the Plexiglas panels which also served as mounts.  Various field modifications were tried in an effort to absorb the recoil from heavier nose guns.

Link to Part I here:

Link to Part II here:

The Boeing B-17E and the Myth of the Bendix Ventral Turret

If you are planning to model one of the Hawaiian Air Depot scheme Boeing B-17E Flying Fortresses, or any one of the first 112 B-17Es produced for that matter, something which will have to be dealt with is the belly turret. Model kits contain the manned Sperry ball turret, but the remote Bendix turret is needed. At least that is the conventional wisdom. In this case it turns out the conventional wisdom has gotten it all wrong. Not only is the Sperry ball turret appropriate in some cases, the B-17E never carried the Bendix remote turret in the first place.

Unfortunately, almost every reference will state that the early B-17E Flying Fortress carried a Bendix belly turret, and almost every reference gets it wrong. The first B-17Es were not built with a Bendix remote turret, but a Sperry model 645705-D remote turret instead. From the B-17E Erection and Maintenance Manual 01-20EE-2:

“(4) BOTTOM TURRET – The bottom turret is installed in the rear fuselage section just aft of the radio compartment. Two installations are provided as follows:

“(a) On airplanes AC serial numbers 41-2393 to 41-2504 inclusive, the Sperry number 645705-D remote sighted twin .50-caliber bottom turret is installed. The sighting station for this turret is installed directly to the rear, and is operated from the prone position with the gunner heading aft. Ammunition boxes for 500 rounds per gun are attached to the turret. Provision has been made on these airplanes for interchangeability with the spherical turret.

“(b) On airplanes, serial numbers AC 41-2505 to 41-2669, inclusive, and AC 41-9011 to 41-9245 inclusive the Sperry number 645849-J spherical bottom turret is installed. On these airplanes no provision is made for interchangeablitity with the remote-sighted gun. Ammunition boxes for 500 rounds per gun are installed within the turret.”

The difference is not merely semantics or nomenclature, the two turrets are unrelated. The Bendix remote turret was retractable, and its sighting aperture was located on the mount itself between the guns. Bendix turrets were carried by the B-25B through the first part of the B-25G production runs, but were discontinued midway through the G model. They were also carried by the B-24D. Later, the Bendix design was modified and appeared as the chin armament on the experimental YB-40 gunship. It was standardized as B-17F nose armament late in B-17F production and carried on all B-17Gs.

The Sperry number 645705-D was also remotely sighted, but the sighting periscope was located aft of the turret in a clear blister. The gunner was also provided with six small scanning windows, two square windows on the underside of the fuselage, and two rectangular windows on each fuselage side. The Sperry remote ventral turret was constructed using the same structural elements as the manned Sperry dorsal turret but without the clear perspex panels.

Neither remote turret was successful. Crews reported difficulty in acquiring and sighting their targets. Mechanical reliability was also an issue. Gunners using the Sperry remote turret often became nauseous due to having to lay prone facing aft to use the sight. Many crews decided the turret was not worth the weight and deleted it entirely or replaced it with the manned Sperry ball turret at the first opportunity. No kills were recorded by gunners using the Sperry remote turret.

An early production B-17E with a Sperry model 645705-D remote turret installed. The sighting periscope is visible in the blister aft of the turret, and the gunner’s scanning windows are visible on the fuselage sides.
Another nice shot showing the Sperry remote turret installation. The remote belly turret was produced using the same structural elements of the manned engineer’s Sperry dorsal turret, in this picture it is possible to compare the shapes of the two directly.
Close up of the Sperry remote turret. Spent shell casings were ejected through the rectangular opening visible between the guns. No windows are present on this turret.
A Boeing factory photograph showing the aft fuselage compartment looking forward.  The remote turret housing is the round object mounted to the floor, the gunner’s sighting arrangement is visible in the foreground of the picture.  The gunner’s scanning windows are located just above the walkways on either side.  To use the remote turret the gunner was required to lay facing aft between the feet of the waist gunners, a problematic arrangement for all concerned!
Here is the Bendix retractable remote turret from the B-25C/D Factory manual. Note the different shape of the turret, and the windows for the sight and the elevation compensator located on the turret itself.
Kora from the Czech Republic produce several conversion sets containing Sperry remote turrets in 1/72 scale, although they too call them Bendix. Many of the resin bits are interior details. This particular set also contains PE aerials for the SCR-521/ASV search radar.
A close up of the turret and sighting blister parts from the Kora set. Modelers could fashion the turret using a spare ventral turret by sanding off the panels and adding an ejector chute. The blister would have to be vacuformed. Scanning windows must be cut into the fuselage sides by the modeler.
Here is a screen capture from John Ford’s film “The Battle of Midway” showing 41-2397 in the Hawaiian Air Depot scheme with the Sperry remote belly turret in June of 1942. This aircraft was named “JOE BFTSPLK” after a popular comic strip character, but it is unclear exactly when the name was applied.
Here is 41-2397 again, this time being serviced on Espiritu Santo in December 1942 just six months later. Note that she has now been refitted with a manned Sperry ball turret. B-17Es were designed so that the remote turret could be replaced with a ball turret, but not the other way around. (Ralph Morse photograph)
Another still from Ford’s film and another HAD ship, 41-2437 with a Sperry remote turret on Midway. On 06MAY42 ALNAV 97 directed that the red and white tail stripes and red centers of US national markings be painted out to avoid any confusion with the red Japanese Hinomaru markings. On 41-2437 the rudder appears to have been painted over using black paint.
Here is 41-2437 six months later refitted with a Sperry ball turret and still wearing her Hawaiian Air Depot scheme. She also carries twin .50s in the radio operator’s position. B-17s with the manned ball turret are often seen airborne with the guns pointed directly down. In this position the gunner’s access door would open into the fuselage, allowing the gunner to leave the cramped turret and move about the aircraft. (Ralph Morse photograph)
A nice shot of 41-2444 on Espiritu Santo in DEC42. She has been refitted with a manned Sperry ball turret and the remote sighting blister has been removed, but the side scanning windows remain. (Ralph Morse photograph)
Some crews removed the ineffective remote turret and made do with what they could improvise. The crew of 41-2432 has mounted twin .50s on a flexible mount in the fuselage opening. This provides another option for modelers who don’t want to be troubled with the turret issue. Note the replacement vertical stabilizer which dates the photograph as being taken after SEP42. 41-2432 carried pin-up nose art and was named “The Last Straw”.  (Australian War Memorial photograph)